8 Basic Ubuntu command tutorial for beginners

ubuntu terminal tutorialToday’s Linux system are not like old Unix environment where you have use command line to operate the system. The GUI(graphical user interface) makes a job lot easier for the beginner Linux user who can just run every application with the movement of mouse. But if you really want to learn  Linux perfectly you must learn to use terminal. Terminal is the command prompt like in the windows machine which can do everything that you can do with graphical user interface. Every things you do in GUI are operated in command which you don’t feel and know. Its hard to remember all command. If you can’t remember its fine. You can try and gradually you start remembering Therefore first you must understand the concept. Linux terminal is the way to interact with the overall Linux system that is underneath the Graphical environment.

How to access Terminal

Terminal will be under Applications menu -> Accessories -> Terminal Or you can access it with shortcut key ctrl+alt+T

To access the Home Folder which you can find under places in the first place in Graphical User Interface:

Type the ls which will bring up the files or folders in home folder as:

ls-linuxcommand

Here the home folder is accessed through terminal using the command ls which is the same as you open the home folder from Places. You can see the different colour combination. The blue colour folders represents the directory and the plain white represent a normal file. There also can be another colour defining the respective characteristic of the folder.

The first information that you see in the command line is your username which is sachit in my case and @ubuntu is the name of the computer. After that information The ~ sign denotes the home which is same location as you go in the place>>>home. $sign is a symbol for regular user that means you are login as regular user not the root user. The full information is like this in my ubuntu: sachit@ubuntu:~$(which you can see screenshot below)

To copy:

Let’s learn how to copy though the terminal. I am going to make the copy of the file words.txt which I am going to save as words-new.txt.

cp-linuxcommandAs, you can see in the picture above the backup of the text file words.txt is created in the Home Folder using the command cp.

To Rename:

To rename, it’s like same as copying the files. I am going to rename the file words-new.txt as rename.txt.

mv-linuxcommand

As, you can see in the picture the files words-new.txt is renamed as rename.txt using the command mv.

Creating a new folder:

Let me create a folder name: ubuntu_rules which I am going to do as:

mkdir-linuxcommandFolder:ubuntu_rules is create using the command mkdir.

Moving the files:

Now, I want to move all the text files in the Home Folder that I created to a newly created folder ubuntu_rules.

ms-movelinuxcommandHere the “*” stands for all which means I am moving the all text files into the folder

To view the text file:

Go the the specific folder where the text files are located using the command cd and type less filename.txt. I am going to open the text file rename.txt.

less-linuxcommandAs, I enter this command text file rename is executed as:

less-linuxcommandexecutedYou can also use the tab completion which means if there is a file name text and you want to access it then, type the word te and press tab which will build rest of the command.

This much on this tutorial. I will be bringing up how to launch the applications, view the system logs and others much more linux commands in the upcoming tutorials.

ubuntu_folder which is nicely done.

Changing the directory:

Now, I want to make sure that the all text files are copied properly in the folder ubuntu_rules. For this, you have to get into the ubuntu_rules directory and see the files in it.

cd-linuxcommandTo get back into the Home Folder you can either type cd ~ or cd ..

To view the text file:

Go the the specific folder where the text files are located using the command cd and type less filename.txt. I am going to open the text file rename.txt.

less-linuxcommandAs, I enter this command text file rename is executed as:

less-linuxcommandexecuted You can also use the tab completion which means if there is a file name text and you want to access it then, type the word te and press tab which will build rest of the command.

This much on this tutorial. I will be bringing up how to launch the applications, view the system logs and others much more linux commands in the upcoming tutorials. Also, check out: How to install and uninstall applications from Terminal in Ubuntu.

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15 Responses to 8 Basic Ubuntu command tutorial for beginners

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  2. siva INDIA Mozilla Firefox Windows says:

    really very helpful for you tutorials i am begging for ubuntu… i am loving it … so now i change all my computing to ubuntu….. its little bit to hard but always i will try to learn please help me….. thanks

    regarding

    siva

  3. Ramachandran KK INDIA Mozilla Firefox Linux says:

    This bits of information is extremely helpful for a beginner.

    I recently switched to Ubuntu natty. I also use window 7 side by side. Though I like Natty the lack of knowledge of keyboard shot cuts in Linux gives me lot of problems. If I try the short-cuts appearing on the menu it is not working. May be I am using these as I use in windows.

    Please let me know about any book available on this subject.

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  5. Gus Rodriguez UNITED STATES Mozilla Firefox Linux says:

    Hi, I just switched to Linux Ubuntu 11.04 which is installed on my laptop besides to Windows 7 Ultimate (dual booting) in any case I convinced that Ubuntu has many advantages compared with Windows 7 Ultimate, is faster,safer but I must say a lot more complicated than Windows, specially if you are a beginner on this system, which is my case, is there any COMPLETE!!! guide for Linux Ubuntu 11.04 either written or online? that would be very helpful, not only for me but for the increasing Linux newcomers, so please reply at your earliest convenience, hoping you are able to recommend me something,best regards.

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  13. datta INDIA Mozilla Firefox Linux says:

    MY cd command is not working.

  14. nastra INDIA Google Chrome Windows says:

    can any 1 help me with installing and playing windows games over ubuntu ?

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