ImmUnity: Unity compatible Ubuntu theme

ImmUnity is a new theme, which aims to bring fabulous new look for Ubuntu compability with Unity. Immunity is a comibnation of various existing theme like Ambiance, Radiance, Elementary and much more. I have recently installed it in Ubuntu 12.10 beta 2 and works perfect. The theme was first released in 2012 April 19. The theme works perfect for ubuntu. There is no problem with text color and windows is displayed properly. You can simply install Immunity using following commands. ImmUnity is a new theme still on Beta stage which aims to bring fabulous new theme for Ubuntu compability with Unity. Immunity is a combination of various existing theme like Ambiance, Radiance, Elementary and much more. I have recently installed it in Ubuntu 12.10 beta 2 and works perfect. The theme was first released in 2012 April 19. The theme works perfect for Ubuntu  There is no problem with text color and windows is displayed properly. You can simply install Immunity using following commands.

cd /tmp
sudo mv /usr/share/themes/Ambiance /usr/share/themes/Ambiance.old
sudo tar xvfz 150278-Immunity.tar.gz -C /usr/share/themes

For the proper integration on Unity 2d.
1. Make a backup of /usr/share/themes/Ambiance folder
2. Create a simlink/copy of the Immunity theme folder to /usr/share/themes and name it Ambiance
3. Set the GTK theme as Ambiance

Open Ubuntu tweaks and choose Immunity as your theme like shown in screenshot below. Then you are ready to rock with new theme
Immunity ubuntu theme

Posted in Linux, Ubuntu, Ubuntu 11.10, Ubuntu 12.04, Ubuntu One | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

How to remove old kernel and unused package from Ubuntu

Old kernel, unused packages, package configs are not necessary useful for your system. Even though you install new kernel in Ubuntu or any Linux distribution, older kernel always remains in the system. Older kernel are located in /boot folder and occupy huge space, It tends to enlarge the Grub menu. Sometimes packages are installed as a dependency of another packages, Suppose you install one application in Ubuntu. All dependency might be install in your system with the application’s package. When you uninstall the application, Ubuntu package manager might not cleans up everything.

Most of the user ignore about it. There are lots of way to do it. If you are smart enough, you can use few lines of commands to do it. I am not sharing any handy commands to perform these task in this post. You can do it with an application called Ubuntu Tweaks in simple easy way with fancy GUI.

Reason to remove old kernel and unused packages.

Old kernel files have lot of drawback. If you are seeing your boot menu mess up with lot of different option, then its time to clean unused kernel.There are lots of way you can do it. Using synaptic or running shell scripting(if you are familiar with one). On the other hand, packages may also become unused over time. If a packages was install to support another package and you uninstall the package,  you will never need the supporting packages. Its always a wise decision to remove your dependency packages.

Step to Remove old kernel and Unused pakcage in Ubuntu

1. Install ubuntu tweaks if you don’t have one.

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tualatrix/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-tweak

Ubuntu tweaks a a simple application that offers fancy GUI to cofnigure your ubuntu system.

2. Run Ubuntu tweak. Go to Janitor, on the left side you will see system, where you can easily find a check box option to remove you old kernel, package configs, unneeded packages.

3. Choose the stuff that you want to clean. Ubuntu tweaks will list down everything from the category you have choosen

ubuntu tweaks

4. click on clean at right hand side which will complete rest of the process

Final conclusion
Periodic clean up is required to optimized the performance your system. This process takes just few minute to complete therefore I advise everyone to do it certain gap of time. Cleaning up old kernel and unused packages not only increase the space of your system but also increase the performance of the system.

Posted in Debian, Linux, Linux Application, Ubuntu, Ubuntu 11.10, Ubuntu 12.04 | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

lpr: Print file from command line

The lpr (line printer) command prints the file from the Linux terminal. The lpr utility places one or more files in a print queue for printing. The concept of queue allows several users of the system allow to send output to the single printer. The queue are printed simultaneously i.e the first file in the queue gets printed first and so on. If you handle most of your file using command line editors like vim or nano and want some immediate output in hardcopy then you will find lpr command very quick and handy. To print using lpr command the printer must be configured and connected to your system. System printer configuration should be installed, follow the instruction to install:

In Debian/Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get install system-config-printer


In Fedora/Cent OS/RedHat:

sudo yum install system-config-printer

In other distros, system-config-printer should be available in repository.

Open it up and Click on Add.adding printer in Linux

Select your printer and add it properly.

lpr command:

Simply type the following command to print simple text file:

lpr filename

List Network Printers:

To get the list of available network printers type:

lpstat -a

Add to the specific printer:

There can be many printer available. Use -P to print to a specific printer.

lpr -Pprinter_name filename

White space after -P doesn’t matter:

lpr -P printer_name


lpr -Pprinter_name

are same.

Status Check:

Check on the status of specific printer queue using lpq.

lpq -Pprinter_name

Remove queue:

As you can see from the above command, each queue has a unique id. You can remove files from queue using lprm command:

lprm -Pprinter_name 6

To cancel all the print jobs use the following command:

lprm -

Print all the files in a directory:

This is a very simple trick to print all the files with same extension in a directory. You need to be in that directory. Type the following command to print all hte files stored in a directory:

lpr -o landscape *.txt

That’s it! All the files with .txt extensions are printed in a landscape format. Printer name can be specified in the same command as:

lpr -o landscape -Pprinter_name *.txt
Posted in Debian, Linux, Linux Command, Ubuntu | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

How to install .tar.gz and other tarball files in Linux

Tar.gz, .tgz, tar.bz2, .tbz2 are compressed tarball files which contains source code of the application. Tarball is used largely in Linux and is parts of GNU project. Most of the applications source code are available in tar files. The installation of file from the source can be complicated at first glance but you will find it completely sophisticated once you are used to it. It is extremely important to understand the installation method because some of the application doesn’t provides the package format for particular distros. Meanwhile, it also gives your brief overview of the organization of files in Linux and how installation works in Linux. Tarball is supported by every Linux distribution.

Extract tarballs:

To extract various tarball files, run the following commands:

tar xvzf file_name.tar.gz

tar xvzf file_name.tgz

tar jxf file_name.tar.bz2

tar jxf file_name.tbz2

‘v’ is optional. If you want to see  the files being extracted use ‘v’ otherwise don’t.  For example, To extract this file “android-sdk_r18-linux.tgz “, I would type:

tar xvzf android-sdk_r18-linux.tgz

tar files installation


To compile the file, change to the extracted directory using cd command. Then type:



./configure command make sure that the system has all the library files that are required to install the file. If the library are not available, it will show the error. You can then install the library from the repository and try again. While configuring you can mention the path of binary file installation path as:

./configure --prefix=/usr/bin/hello

This will install the binary file later in the hello directory under usr/bin.

make command compiles the source files into executable binaries.


To install type:

make install

This command will install the binary file into your Linux machine.

Final Conclusion: All the source or tarball files have the README file which consist of the installation instructions. To compile and install the tar ball files all the library dependencies needed, should be installed. Before installing source files it’s always a good idea to read the installation instructions under README file.

Posted in Linux, Linux Application, Linux Command | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

9 things to consider while migrating from Windows to Linux

migrate windows to linuxWindows and Linux are paradoxical since long time. Many people still think Linux is a obscure operating system while windows can be though as docile kind of operating system. Linux users receive accolade from the majority of the people. Linux users are often treat as a “geek” or “nerd” in the society. If you are also Linux user you might have use windows in some point of your life. It feels terrible when you first switch to Linux.  It will be difficult to stick to Linux  If you have used it due to some obligation like it’s the part of study in your curriculum, or you want to give a try to make your computer virus free. The difficulties may arise while migrating from windows to Linux. To minimize this complexity I have illustrated 9 things that you should consider while migrating.

Please Note: This post doesn’t  illustrate Linux or windows server.

1. Linux is not windows

linux not windows

Don’t confuse yourself, Linux is not a windows. Linux is a completely different operating system that has many different things than windows. Most people tend to make similar mistake. Here are certain things you need to know

  • Linux have different file system than windows.
  • Windows binary file(.exe) doesn’t work on Linux unless you use wine or similar application.
  • Linux is not an operating system.

2. Know the reason why you are migrating to Linux.

why linux

Ask yourself what makes you to turn into Linux from windows.  Here are few reasons why you should know facts.

  • There are 100′s of Linux distribution, finding out the appropriate reason  to switch to Linux might help you to choose suitable distro for your needs.
  • There are different way you can install Linux in your system. You can use it as: Primary operating system, dual booted with windows, install like a program in windows(Ubuntu, mint), live CD. If you just want to use Linux to give a try, you can run a live CD and see the overall preview. If you have plan to migrate to Linux but want to use windows at somepoint try dual booting or use wubi(ubuntu and mint). If you are completely ready to migrate to Linux, you can install it as primary operating system.
  • Don’t switch to Linux for stupid reasons.

3. Prepare yourself to dump some window’s application and games.

dump windows software

Yes, Linux has wine to install some of the windows application sand games. I still remember when I launch some game in my Ubuntu 10.10 and was extremely delightful. Linux doesn’t support windows file.  Even though wine support various application, there is still chances that most of the windows application might not run in linux. You must prepare yourself to find alternative application for your need.

4. Pick up your favorite desktop environment

Linux desktop environment

Its not compulsory but I recommend everyone to do a little research on different desktop environment that Linux offer. There is GNOME, KDE, xfce. mate, cinnamon, razor qt, Lxde and lot more. Since you are migrating to Linux you have plenty of choice. Each distribution adopt different desktop environment example Linux mint has mate and cinnamon. Ubuntu has unity, Debian has Gnome 2. Fedora has Gnome 3. Each distro comes with it’s default desktop environment but can be changed. For example Ubuntu 12.04 comes with Unity but one can easily install Gnome 3 in Ubuntu.

5 Learn Few Linux Command


I’ts a tedious things for those who use computing just for daily uses. Linux command are not mandatory. You can do various usual things with GUI. Sometimes command are handy. In some cases, it can do various things a lot faster than GUI.

6. Learn to use resources.

user resources

Linux got fabulous community. People are helping around to sort out your difficulty. Each Linux distribution offers a forum where you can ask any relevant question or search the archive to find the necessary solution of your problem. Be precise and learn to use it. The next useful resources is IRC chat.

 7. Learn about Linux file system


File system in Linux is different than windows. When you have migrated from windows to Linux various question may rises. Learning about Linux file system might make your task easier in several way.

8. Find alternative software for Linux

Linux have lot of alternative to windows software. Good news, the alternative are free software. Try to note down the one that you need. Finding an open source application for your need might helps you to convert yourself to Linux in short period of time. The are are several website where you can find the alternative software for commercial software. Some of them are:

9. Learn to install application

Installating application in Linux is different than windows. The installation method is completely different from different distro unless you install from source file , .bin, file. Here are the few way to install File in Linux

Final Conclusion: Migrating from windows to Linux won’t be tough if you consider the above point. The right choice of distribution for your need might help you to make more comfortable while migration. At some point of life, you will make a decision to use Linux as your primary operating system.

Posted in Linux | Tagged , , , , | 3 Comments

Configure Apache with mod_wsgi in Linux server

lamp-linux-apacheThis tutorial provides step by step guide to configure mod_wsgi along with Apache in Linux server. I am using Debian 6 Squeeze and Apache2. mod_wsgi is fast, more actively maintained and better performing that mod_python. Thus, it would be the best idea to choose mod_wsgi to run your python web apps. However, if you have some obligation to use mod_python see the step by step tutorial to configure Linux server with Apache2 and mod_python: configure apache with mod_python.

Install Apache:

For Debain/Ubuntu run:

sudo apt-get install apache2 apache2-doc apache2-utils

Install mod_wsgi:

For Debian/Ubuntu user:

sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-wsgi

There are two types of mode in mod_wsgi:

1) Embedded mode:

This is also the default mode. Whenever embedded mode is used you have to restart the whole server after changing the code. Embedded mode is highly inappropriate.

2) Daemon Mode:

Daemon mode avoids necessity to restart the whole server when code are changed. Thus, we will always want to set up the Daemon mode when configuring apache with mod_wsgi.

Configure Apache:

Edit the virtualhost(vhost) configuration file:

Go to terminal and open the file as:

sudo vim /etc/apache2/sites-available/default

Edit the file to look like this:

<VirtualHost *:80>


WSGIDaemonProcess myapp processes=2 threads=3 display-name=%{GROUP}
WSGIProcessGroup myapp

DocumentRoot /var/www/wsgi-scripts

<Directory /var/www/wsgi-scripts>
Order allow,deny
Allow from all

WSGIScriptAlias /myapp /var/www/wsgi-scripts/myapp.wsgi

<Directory /var/www/wsgi-scripts>
Order allow,deny
Allow from all


Note: You should substitute the paths and the hostnames appropriate to your system.

Here’s a sample app taken from Google code:

def application(environ, start_response):
    status = '200 OK'
    output = 'Hello World!'

    response_headers = [('Content-type', 'text/plain'),
                        ('Content-Length', str(len(output)))]
    start_response(status, response_headers)

    return [output]

Save this file as myapp.wsgi. I would save in /var/www/wsgi-scripts.
Run the apache server:

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 start

Run the application is your web browser:

That’s it. You will see the ouput as:

"Hello world!"

Final Conclusion: This tutorial is tested with Debian 6 however, it should work  on any Linux distribution.  The .wsgi file must have read permission so that the file can be executed and also don’t forget to substitute the paths and hostnames appropriate to your system in the virtual host configuration file.

Posted in Debian, Linux, Ubuntu, Ubuntu 11.10, Ubuntu 12.04, Ubuntu One | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Ubuntu vs Linux Mint

ubuntu vs linux mintUbuntu or Linux Mint. This is the question most people ask me when they set mind to install first Linux distribution in their machine.  When you plan to use Linux, you are surrounded by the choice. There are 100′s of Linux distribution available, each having their own specialty. People pick their favourite distros because they find it convenient and easy to use. The same distro can be disgusting  and ridiculous to other people. So, its the choice that matter.  however this articles will helps you to visualize the differences between Ubuntu and Linux Mint and helps you to find the appropriate choice for you.

Brief Overview

There are 100′s of different Linux distribution but as a title suggest I am not comparing every possible distros .In 16 August 1993, Debian the mother of Ubuntu and Linux mint had its initial release. From the past 19 years it has been able to gain wide amount of popularity with its focus on stability and security. In 20 October 2004 Ubuntu was released as a fork of the Debian Project’s codebase. After 2 years, in 27 August 2006 Linux mint release its first beta release based on Ubuntu. If there hasn’t been Debian there mayn’t be Ubuntu and Linux Mint.

Ubuntu is based on Debian and Linux mint is based on Ubuntu. However they both have evolve themselve on unique way following their own approach and desktop environment.

Desktop Environment

When it comes to the desktop environment, both Ubuntu and Linux mint are different from other Linux distro. Ubuntu has adopted unity despite of several controversy, while Mint uses MATE desktop which is a fork of Gnome 2. Here are some difference on desktop environment between Ubuntu and Linux Mint.

Default Desktop environment:  Ubuntu use unity as their default desktop environment whereas Linux mint user can choose between mate and Cinnamon. Unity is available in 2d and 3d. The 3D version is powered by compiz.

Other desktop environment: Both Linux mint and Ubuntu are available in different taste. Ubuntu is available in Kubuntu(KDE version), Xubuntu(xfce version), Lubuntu(LXDE version) , Edubuntu, ubuntustudio(Multimedia user). Linux Mint is available in KDE, Xfce, mate and cinnamon. Unlike ubuntu, Linux Mint doesn’t have seperate name for different desktop environment.

 You can always install other desktop environment in any Linux Distribution. The installation is simple and doesn’t required any specific knowledge. You can even choose different desktop environment during login process and use it for that particular session.

Screenshot Ubuntu with unity


Screenshot Linux Mint with Cinnamon

Performance and Usability:

Linux Mint is light and faster than Ubuntu . Ubuntu has improve the speed since Ubuntu 12.04 but it still can’t beat the Linux Mint. Linux Mint is a good choice for old hardware machine.

While comes to usability, Ubuntu have received a wide amount of criticism. Many expert claim usability is dead on ubuntu since is start adopting unity. Unity is still evolving so its too early to predit about its future but it slowly receiving a good feedback after the release of version Ubuntu 12.04. On the other hand mate wins in terms of usability. Mint default desktop environment “mate” gives users the taste of Gnome 2. My personnel choice is Linux mint in terms of speed.

Release Schedule and Upgrade

Ubuntu and Linux Mint are release once every six month. Linuxmint is release one month after Ubuntu, based on the version of Ubuntu. Ubuntu and Mint both follow the followng release convention.

  • Alpha 1
  • Alpha 2
  • Beta 1
  • Beta 2
  • Release candidate
  • Final Release

The upgrade  process can be start in Ubuntu by launching update Manager. Linux mint categories the update in two different block: ”fresh” and “package” upgrades. Mint recommend the fresh installation over package upgrade. You can read the full documentation over here.

Ubuntu update

Software install, update and backup

Both ubuntu and Linux mint are based on Debian, therefore the software install method are almost same. Ubuntu has ubuntu software center for software installation while Linux mint has software manager. You can rate , review, download, install, uninstall software in Both distros. PPA works both on mint and Ubuntu. The installation method via ppa is same on Ubuntu and Mint.

Directory backups in ubuntu is perfomed via DEja Dup. Linux mint offers a backsolution from the application called mintBackup. Both application is easy to use and simple. However Mintback can’t handle incremental backup like Deja DUp. Incremental backup take less time to complete. Deja Dup doesn’t provide application specific backup whereas Mintbackup does.

Final Conclusion:

Ubuntu and Linux Mint has their own pros and cons. If you have just migrated from windows and using the Linux for the first time I recommend you to choose among these two Linux distribution. Ubuntu and Linux mint both have good community support. You don’t really need to know handy command to operate these distribution, however learning basic command is always recommended.


Posted in Linux, Ubuntu, Ubuntu 11.04, Ubuntu 11.10, Ubuntu 12.04, Ubuntu One | Tagged , | 6 Comments